Perched high in the Andes Mountains of Peru, Machu Picchu is a breathtaking archaeological wonder that has captivated the world for centuries. This ancient Inca citadel has earned the nickname “the Lost City” due to its mysterious abandonment and hidden location. In this article, we will delve into the intriguing history of Machu Picchu and uncover the secrets that surround this enigmatic site.

The Discovery of Machu Picchu

The story of Machu Picchu’s discovery is as fascinating as the ruins themselves. In 1911, American explorer Hiram Bingham stumbled upon the site while searching for the “lost” Inca capital Vilcabamba. Covered in dense vegetation, Machu Picchu remained hidden from the outside world for centuries, preserved in remarkable condition. Bingham’s subsequent expeditions and publications brought international attention to this extraordinary archaeological masterpiece.

Mysteries Surrounding Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu’s remote location and lack of written records have given rise to numerous mysteries. One of the most baffling aspects is its purpose. Some theories suggest that it served as a royal retreat for Inca emperors, while others propose it was a religious sanctuary or even a military stronghold. The absence of defensive structures and the presence of agricultural terraces have further deepened the enigma surrounding its function.

Theories Behind the Lost City

Several theories attempt to explain why Machu Picchu was ultimately abandoned and hidden. Some scholars believe that the Spanish conquistadors never discovered the site, allowing it to remain intact. Others argue that a smallpox epidemic or social unrest forced the inhabitants to flee. Regardless of the true reason, the abandonment of Machu Picchu only adds to its allure and mystical aura.

Exploring the Ruins of Machu Picchu

Today, Machu Picchu stands as a testament to the remarkable engineering and architectural skills of the Inca civilization. Visitors can wander through the labyrinthine stone structures, marvel at the precision of the stonework, and witness panoramic views of the surrounding mountains and valleys. The iconic Intihuatana stone, believed to have served as a sundial or astronomical calendar, is a highlight of any visit.

The Significance of Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu holds immense cultural and historical significance. In 1983, it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site and, in 2007, it was voted as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. The site attracts millions of tourists each year, offering a glimpse into the rich Inca heritage and captivating natural beauty of the region.

Preserving and Protecting Machu Picchu

The increasing number of visitors to Machu Picchu has raised concerns about the site’s preservation. In an effort to protect this fragile archaeological treasure, the Peruvian government has implemented measures to limit the number of daily visitors and promote sustainable tourism practices. Visitors are encouraged to follow strict guidelines to minimize their impact on the site and ensure its longevity for future generations.


Machu Picchu continues to captivate travelers and scholars alike with its awe-inspiring beauty and enduring mysteries. Whether you are drawn to its hidden secrets, intrigued by its ancient history, or simply seeking a profound cultural experience, a visit to Machu Picchu promises an unforgettable journey into the heart of the Inca civilization.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why is Machu Picchu called the Lost city?

Machu Picchu is called the Lost City because of its remote location and the fact that it remained hidden from the outside world for centuries. The dense vegetation surrounding the site contributed to its obscurity, and it was only rediscovered in 1911 by American explorer Hiram Bingham.

2. How was Machu Picchu built?

Machu Picchu was constructed using remarkable engineering techniques by the Inca civilization. The site is built on a steep mountain ridge, and the stones were expertly cut and fitted together without the use of mortar. The precision of the stonework is a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the Inca builders.

3. Who lived in Machu Picchu?

The exact purpose and inhabitants of Machu Picchu remain a subject of speculation and debate among scholars. Some theories suggest that it was a royal retreat for Inca emperors, while others propose it was a religious sanctuary. The absence of written records has made it challenging to determine with certainty who lived in Machu Picchu.

4. How can I visit Machu Picchu?

To visit Machu Picchu, you need to travel to Cusco, Peru, which serves as the gateway to the ruins. From there, you can take a train or hike the famous Inca Trail to reach the site. It is recommended to book tickets in advance, as visitor numbers are limited each day to preserve the site. Hiring a knowledgeable guide is also advisable to enhance your experience and learn more about the history and significance of Machu Picchu.

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